Peggy Lee's Bio-Discography:
Abbreviations, Symbols, And Codes

by Iván Santiago-Mercado

Page generated on Jan 23, 2019


I. Explanation Of Contents

The following list contains nearly all the abbreviations found in this discography. Excluded from the list are those abbreviations whose meaning should be all too clear or too common to require explanation -- for instance, "CD."

Most of the listed abbreviations stand for either musical instruments or personnel roles. A few refer to format (cassette, reel-to-reel tape, etc.) or to other particulars of interest (e.g., whether an issue falls under the Public Domain category, as opposed to being an officially sanctioned release).

The list is organized alphabetically. Abbreviations starting with numerals are listed at the end, and so are symbols such as ®.

Some abbreviations are followed by one or more asterisks. Such asterisks indicate that an explanation about the given abbreviation has been provided right below the main list, on sections III to VI.

Following those explanatory sections, you will also find an additional list. Identifying itself as part VII, that second list attempts to account for most of the formats covered by this discography, from 78 to CD.


II. Abbreviations


acc   ................................ Accompaniment
acg   ................................ Acoustic Guitar
af   ................................... Alto Flute
afp   ............................... African Thumb Piano
ah   ............................... Alto Horn
arr   .............................. Arranger
as   .............................. Alto Sax
b   ................................... Bass
ban   .............................. Bandoneon
bar   .............................. Baritone Sax
bcl   .............................. Bass Clarinet
bd   .............................. Bass Drum
bel   .............................. Bells
bf   .................................. Bass Flute
bfb   .............................. Bantamweight Fender Bass
bgtr   .................................. Bass Guitar
bh   .............................. Baritone Horn
bj   .................................. Banjo
bkv   .............................. Background Vocals
bo   ................................. Bongos
br   ................................. Brass
bsn   .............................. Bassoon
bsx   .............................. Bass Sax
bt   .............................. Bass Trombone
c   .................................. Cornet
ca   .............................. Cor Anglais, aka English horn
ccm   .............................. Concertmaster
cel   .............................. Celeste
chi   .............................. Chimes
chr   .............................. Chorus
cl   .............................. Clarinet
Cm   .............................. C-Melody Sax
cng   .............................. Congas
con   .............................. Conductor
cs   .............................. Cassette
cym   .............................. Cymbals
d   .................................. Drums
db   .............................. Doubling
DX7   .............................. DX-7
eb   .............................. Electric Bass
ela   .............................. Electric Accordion
elg   .............................. Electric Guitar **
elo   .............................. Electric Organ
elp   .............................. Electric Piano
eng   .............................. Engineer
ent   .............................. Entertainer
ET   .............................. Transcription Recording
eu   .............................. Euphonium
f   ................................... Flute
fen   .............................. (Fender) Rhodes Piano
fh   .............................. Flugel-Horn
frh   .............................. French Horn
g   .................................. Guitar
gch   .............................. Guitar Chords only
gfs   .............................. Goofus/Cuesnophone
glk   .............................. Glockenspiel
gou   .............................. (Beaded) Gourd Rattle
gng   .............................. Gong
gut   .............................. Catgut Guitar
h   .............................. Harmonica
hal   .............................. Halowire [?]
har   .............................. Harmonium
hb3   .............................. Hammond B-3
hfp   .............................. Hot Fountain Pen
hps   .............................. Harpsichord
hrn   .............................. Horns
hrp   .............................. Harp
ind   .............................. Individual Instruments ***
issue   .............................. Any album, single, etc., made of performances *
k   .................................. Kazoo
key   .............................. Keyboards
lat   .............................. Latin drums
ldr   .............................. Leader **
mal   .............................. Mallets
mar   .............................. Marimba
md   .............................. Mandolin
mda   .............................. Melodica
mel   .............................. Mellophone
mph   .............................. Mellophonium
nec   .............................. Neck (Guitar) **
o   .................................. Oboe
oc   .............................. Ocarina
orc   .............................. Orchestra
om   .............................. Orchestra Manager or Contractor
o-c   ................................ Orchestrator (Arranger For Orchestra)
org   .............................. Organ
oth   .............................. Other Individuals playing in this date remain unknown
p   .................................... Piano
pac   .............................. Accordion
performance   ................... Any version of a song, whether on record or live *
pdr   .............................. Producer
per   .............................. Percussion
pic   .............................. Piccolo
PL   .............................. Peggy Lee
p-o   .............................. piston oboe
r   ..................................... Reeds
rec   .............................. Recorder
reel   .............................. Reel-to-reel tape
rg   .............................. Rhythm Guitar
r-s   .............................. Rhythm Section
s-a   .............................. Arranger Of The Strings Only
sax   .............................. Sax
sb   .............................. String Bass
sd   .............................. Snare Drum
slg   .............................. Slide Guitar
snt   .............................. Synthesizer
spk   .............................. Speaking
ss   .............................. Soprano Sax
stg   .............................. Steel Guitar
str   .............................. Strings
syn   .............................. Synclavier
sw   .............................. Slide Whistle
t   .............................. Trumpet
tam   .............................. Tamborine
tb   .............................. Trombone
t-g   .............................. Tenor Guitar
th   .............................. Tenor Horn
tim   .............................. Timbales
trd   .............................. Trap Drum
tri   .............................. Triangle
ts   .............................. Tenor Sax
ttd   .............................. Tom-Tom Drum
tu   .............................. Tuba
tym   .............................. Tympani
u   .............................. Ukelele
unk   ............................. Unknown instrument[s]
v   .............................. Vocalist
vbh   ............................. Vibraharp
vc   .............................. Violoncello
vdr   .............................. Vocal Director
v&i   .............................. Vocals & Instruments
vib   .............................. Vibraphone
vl   .............................. Viola
vn   .............................. Violin
vtb   .............................. Valve Trombone
w   .............................. Whistling
wb   .............................. Washboard
wds   .............................. Woodwinds
www~   .............................. licensed issue ***
x   ................................... Xylophone
yyy~   .............................. Collectors' label issue ****
zzz~   .............................. Public Domain issue ****
zzzz~   .............................. Bootleg or unknown label issue ****
2-T   .............................. 2-track playtape
4-T   .............................. 4-track cartridge
8-T   .............................. 8-track cartridge
12g   .............................. Electric 12-string guitar ***
©   ................................. Masters owned by or released on the indicated label ****


*III. Glossing Of General Terminology

Issue
This is an all-embracing term. It stands for each and all the configurations in which music has ever been issued, from 78-rpm and 45-rpm singles to CDs and MP3 files. (On the specific subject of the MP3 files, it should be noted that this discography does not cover such configurations. Allowances have been made for just a few exceptions of special interest.)

Performance
A term used in this discography to refer to any number sung by Peggy Lee, whether in the studio or elsewhere. To avoid being too repetitive, occasionally I have substituted this term with one of various qualifying nouns (e.g., "song," "recording," "master," "number").


**IV. Glossing Of Abbreviations For Personnel

Leader
Throughout this discography, I have departed from the normal usage of the term "leader," which has traditionally referred to the session's conductor. I have instead listed Peggy Lee as the "leader" of all her sessions. I have done so for a variety of reasons. (Chief among them is a technical matter, pertaining to my private handling of my discographical database. By listing Lee as session leader, I have the capability to retrieve all of her sessions automatically, thus separating them from the many non-Lee sessions that have accumulated in my database. Note that I am referring to a discographer's matter: the aforementioned retrieval of sessions is not accessible to viewers.) Similarly, vocal artists such as Bing Crosby and Mel Tormé have been named the leaders of their respective sessions, on which Lee participated as a guest.


***V. Glossing Of Abbreviations For Musical Instruments

Ind
Individual Instruments. I have often used this abbreviation in conjunction with the abbreviation unk, as indicators that the instruments played by the session's personnel are not known.

Elg
12g
Electric guitar and 12-string electric guitar. The former is an all encompassing category: any electric guitar, no number of strings specified. Conversely, elg is a specific sub-category, reserved for those few cases in which my raw data specifies that a 12-string guitar was used. The same line of thought applies to other instrument categories and sub-categories, such as brass and percussion (i.e., bongos, conga, drums, Latin drums, and so forth).

Neck (Guitar)
Found only once amidst the many documents that I have consulted (specifically, in an AFM report for a Capitol session dated February 28, 1969), the term neck guitar is not a familiar or clear one to me. The report in question lists "neck" among the three instruments that guitarist James Burton played at the date. My assumption: during one of the session's three performances, Burton made use of his guitar's neck (rather than the guitar's strings) to produce a musical sound.


****VI. Glossing Of Terminology For Record Companies

In this discography, every listed issue (i.e., a CD, a LP, etc.) is assumed to be an official item (i.e., released by the label that owns the masters), except when certain italicized words suggest otherwise. Examples:

1. Collectors' Choice Licensed CD: Ccm 921 2 — All Aglow Again! (2008)
The word "licensed" identifies a label that has legitimately released Peggy Lee's masters, but does not own them. In other words, the releasing company (in this case, Collectors' Choice) borrowed Lee masters from their rightful owner (Capitol, or its then-parent company, EMI) and paid the fees that were requested under USA law (that is to say, fees collected on behalf of artists, songwriters, and recording company). Instances of excellent licensing labels, some of then now defunct, include Bear Family, Collectors' Choice, Hip-o Select, Mosaic, and Rhino Handmade.

2. Hallmark Public Domain CD: 710262 (England) — Latin Ala Lee! (2011)
The words "public domain" indicate that the label in question (Hallmark) made no use of the original masters (owned, in this case, by EMI-Capitol), resorting instead to copying or "burning" the album's numbers from previously released CDs or LPs. Furthermore, Hallmark probably did not have to pay fees to the artists and to the owners of the masters. Instead, the company took advantage of European copyright laws that allow for the re-release of music performances after a certain lapse of time. That amount of time varies from European country to European country, but is generally far shorter than in the United States. (Some PD labels do still pay fees to songwriter agencies.) Many of these companies make rather careless or at least casual use of masters that have fallen in the Public Domain. A nakedly commercial approach is evident, and so is a lack of interest in putting together a well-made product, although there are notable exceptions. Proper Records, for instance, shows a measure of care in the song selection and an interest in offering appealing artwork, even if the quality of the remastering has varied over the years, and even if over-processing has been a common complaint among discerning listeners of their releases.

3. Radio Archives Collectors' Label MP3/CD: Ra 190 / Ra 690 — [Jimmy Durante] The Jimmy Durante Show, Volume 1 (2011)
4. Future Noise's Fantastic Voyage Collectors' Label CD: Fvtd 043 — Ridin' High; The Complete Record Releases, 1957-1959 (2010)
The words "collectors' label" are used primarily to signal a company dedicated to releasing live performances, TV appearances, and radio broadcasts. In a secondary application, the words can also signal a Public Domain label that raises above its competition by issuing collections that are either filled with rare music or carefully put together (i.e., thoughtfully organized, well researched, appealingly designed). These are music companies whose releases aim at satisfying collectors (as opposed to companies whose aim is more overtly commercial, whose main target is the less discriminating sector of the buying public, and which were described in entry #2 above. Among the most notable of such labels: Classics (chronological sets of mostly studio masters in the Public Domain), Jasmine (rarities and oft-neglected masters in the Public Domain), Phontastic (alternate takes as well as rarities), and Sepia (oft-neglected masters in the Public Domain, released in sets laudable for their fine sound quality, appealing artwork, and thoughtful selection of repertoire). Another collector-oriented label with a Peggy Lee issue that rises high above most others is Fantastic Voyage (a division of the British company Future Noise), which produced a noteworthy Peggy Lee compilation called Ridin' High; The Complete Record Releases, 1957-1959.



©
This Peggy Lee sessionography also makes a special use of the symbol ©. It points to cases in which the releasing company does not fully fall into any of the categories mentioned above (Public Domain, Collectors' Label, Licensed, Owners). Here are six examples of the symbol's usage, followed by more specific explanations:

1) DECCA©Brunswick EP: (England) Oe 9467 - Bing Sings, No. 2 (1959)
2) DECCA©MCA LP: (Japan) Vfc 1608 - Louis Armstrong And Peggy Lee ("The Big Stars" Series) (rel. year unknown)
3) DECCA©Vocalion LP: Vl 3776 - So Blue (1966)
4) DECCA©MCA's Coral CS/LP: ... - Peggy Lee (1984)
5) DECCA©Universal's Verve CD: ... - Black Coffee With Peggy Lee (2004)
6) DECCA©Universal ; Polydor©Universal CD: ... - Peggy Lee ("The Silver Spectrum Collection" Series) (2007)

Preceding the © symbol is the company for which the masters were originally recorded (in all these cases, Decca). Following the © symbol is the name of the company that released the issue. In the first example, the reason why the folks at Brunswick were able to issue the material was not that it was licensed to them, but rather that Brunswick was the company in charge of American Decca material in the United Kingdom. In the second example, MCA is actually the parent company, under whose imprint USA Decca material was issued in Japan.

In the third and fourth examples, the issuing companies are Coral and Verve. At the time that issues #3 and #4 were released, Coral was owned by MCA, Verve by Universal.

The final example is a bit more complicated; the issue in question, released by the Universal conglomerate, contains some masters originally recorded for Decca and some masters originally recorded for Polydor.

Indexing considerations partially account for my decision to set up this special codification. Thanks to my adding of "Decca" and the © symbol, the discography's automated index will sequence together all issues that contain Decca masters, irrespective of the label that issued them.


VII. A List Of Configurations Or Formats Found In This Discography

78

78 album

V-Disc

Radio Transcription
(A disc manufactured specifically for radio playing, not for sale to the public. Also known as an ET or transcription recording. ETs were produced mostly in 16" and 12" sizes, although other sizes certainly existed during the early days of this format. Due to size and, in some cases, speed and performance sequencing, they are not playable in regular consumer turntables.)

45

EP
(A 45-rpm disc inside a cardboard cover. The front of the cover features artwork or photography, whereas the back cover may be blank or may include features such as track listing and liner notes. Also known as a 45 album.)

Double EP
(Just like an EP except that it includes two 45-rpm discs, occasionally even three or four. The discs may be inside a gatefold or even tri-fold cardboard cover. Also called a EP album.)

EP box
(Two or more 45-rpm discs issued not in a cardboard cover but inside a cardboard box.)

Jukebox EP
A 1960s specialty item, jukebox EPs were intended not for sale in stores but for playing in coin-operated machines -- jukeboxes, nickelodeons. Hence the audience who heard them consisted of those who frequented malt shops, diners, bars, drugstores, etc. These EPs were 7" discs that usually played at 33 instead of 45 revolutions per minute. The ones from Capitol generally identify themselves as belonging to either a "compact 33" or a "compact double 33" series. I should add in passing that jukebox machines also played 45-rpm singles, though they could handle only 45-rpm discs with large holes in their center -- i.e., the standard type of 45-rpm disc in the Americas, but not in much of the Old World. In countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia, 45-rpm discs had the same small hole as 12" LPs, though record labels addressed the jukebox matter by making the discs' centers optionally detachable.)

LP
(10", 12", 7")

Audiophile LP
(Vinyl of the post-vinyl era -- i.e., the 1990s and the twenty-first century -- manufactured and remastered by specialized companies which aim at producing top-notch sound quality.)

Collectors' Pressing LP
(Vinyl manufactured during the post-vinyl era, but not necessarily remastered, and not aiming at producing top-notch sound quality.)

Cassette

Cassingle
(A cassette that contains just two songs, one per side. Also known as a cassette single.)

Reel-to-Reel Tape
See some visual examples near the top of this page. Made available to the buying public in the late 1950s and, especially, in the following couple of decades. Though not terribly popular then, nowadays they are highly regarded by collectors who find them exceptionally warm-sounding despite their acknowledged shortcomings -- most notably, frequent hiss; also, their sound quality varies widely, in part because dubbing plants tended to receive generation tapes that were far removed from the original master, and in part because of the plants' tendency, as years went by, to dupe at higher speeds -- 16X and up -- on 3¾ IPS, rather than using 4X or 8X on the far preferable, higher fidelity 7½ IPS. Generally, the earlier the reel-to-reel tape, the greater its sound quality; at Capitol, tapes from before 1960 are far superior to those which came out in 1960 and thereafter. In Peggy Lee's case, none of her reel releases date from before 1960, unfortunately.

8-track cartridge
4-track cartridge
2-track playtape
(The 8-track was the best known of these three cartridge configurations. The other two did not gain wide popularity.)

CD

CD single
(A compact disc with a very small number of songs -- generally anywhere between one and six.)

Commercial CDr
(I have created and reserved this category for certain digital releases, usually sold by tiny online companies specializing in old radio material. My designation of their CDs as CDrs should not be interpreted as pejorative. On the contrary, in some cases the sound quality of those companies's product -- e.g., those from the now defunct Redmond Nostalgia -- is commendably clean and clear.)

MP3
(Just a handful of MP3 titles are listed in this discography, and most of them belong to the noteworthy ultra-lounge Capitol series which began on compact disc and eventually shifted to MP3. I am resistant to list more MP3 titles due to various factors: the generally inferior sound quality of the format, its ephemeral and non-physical nature, the lack of basic accompanying information -- e.g., no catalogue number -- and the evergrowing proliferation of shoddy, poorly assembled MP3 issues. But, as the format keeps evolving in upcoming years, I could well end up changing my mind.)